Leading Materials Organization, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Atomic Energy Organization of Iran
The prevalence of diabetes, like a metabolic disease that can cause serious damage to major organs and nerves in the body, is increasing rapidly worldwide. According to the World Health Organization, diabetes will be the seventh deadliest disease by 2030. Therefore, it is necessary to precisely control the concentration of glucose in human blood and maintain its concentration at normal levels. So far, various methods for detecting glucose concentration such as colorimetric method, optical method, and electrochemical method have been adopted, among which electrochemical sensors, due to their simplicity, low cost, and high sensitivity are known as the most effective and convenient tool. Enzyme-based biosensors and enzyme-free biosensors exist as the two main classes of electrochemical glucose sensors, in which enzyme sensors include enzymes such as glucose oxidase or glucose dehydrogenase to detect glucose. Despite very high selectivity and timely sensitivity, enzyme biosensors have certain disadvantages such as loss of enzyme structure, low stability, and high cost. In addition, environmental factors such as temperature, pH, humidity, toxic chemicals, and organic reagents affect the activity of enzymes and reduce the sensitivity and reusability of relevant enzymatic biosensors. Enzyme-free glucose sensor has been highly regarded as a reliable tool for measuring glucose due to its number of advantages such as excellent stability, simplicity, reproducibility, and anti-interference properties. Glucose sensors without enzymes based on metal oxides, including iron oxide and zinc oxide, are widely used to make electrochemical sensors due to their low cost, excellent biocompatibility, and chemical stability. Metal oxides create a direct electrical conduit for electron transfer to prevent their irreversible accumulation. Therefore, this paper has done a study on the principles and properties of glucose-free sensors based on one-dimensional metal oxide nanostructures modified with electrocatalytic coating.