1Department of Motor behavior and Sport management, Faculty of sport science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
2Department of Business Management, Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Azad University of Neyshabur, Neyshabur, Iran
Introduction: Sport and healthy entertainment in developed countries is now regarded as an important industry and an influential reason in the growth of the national economy and considered as one of the most competitive industries in the 21 century. Today, marketing is more developed through sports events and several companies use sport as a medium to attract customers and to sell their products and services. The purpose of this paper was to investigate and compare the effectiveness of the three types of marketing related to sports events including team marketing, ambush marketing, and event marketing.
Methods: This type of study was exploratory and the research method was combinatorial. Data collection tools in the first section included studying theses, articles, and books related to the field of research, services marketing, marketing, event marketing, and brand. In the second part, the semi-structured interviews were conducted because they were flexible with 20 experts related to event marketing.
Results: This study investigated the effectiveness of three types of marketing related to sports events during the FIFA World Cup 2018. In order to check this effectiveness, the research was conducted in two product categories (airline and Juice Company) to check factors including brand orientation, the brand value from a customer perspective, word of mouth marketing, and creativity in sponsor advertising.
Conclusion: The results show that the effectiveness of team marketing is in the first place, followed by ambush marketing in the second place, and final event marketing in the third place. In other words, team marketing shows the highest average value in brand orientation, word of mouth marketing, and brand value from the customer perspective.